Cyber Crime

“Thanks for your support, guys. On a request from one of my special readers{Jeevandeep}, I have come down to bring this post for all. This is a very important and must-read article, especially for the online traders, regular customers of e-commerce websites and anyone. One must know the consequences of blindly accepting any request from web pages, apps or uncertified and unknown resources. So please read it and understand the importance of awareness about the progressing(worldwide) cyber crimes…”

CYBER CRIME or COMPUTER CRIME

Cyber crime is the kind of intentionally caused harm using computer and network devices. In simple language, the crime(intentionally caused harm) involving computer and telecommunication network or/and privacy-teasing based operations, is called cybercrime.

The following points are to be noted with reference to cyber crime:

  • Both the victim and the and the “criminal” may have computer/network resources
  • or,

  • Only the commiter may have a computer resource and network connection to tease with the victims privacy.
  • Privacy, financial, event-based, relation-based, etc. elements or combination of these may the target of the criminal.
  • Even stronger network security systems can be fluctuated to ooze through and destroy one in many ways; leading to mental as well as financial loss.
  • People who commit these kind of crimes may be called hackers, crackers, Trojans, online security/privacy teasers, cyber thieves, etc.; but their intentions are more or less around causing harm and to gaining profit or to take revenge!
  • Most of them usually have some basic and very crucial information to begin and lead to crime. Some of them may be fluent in programming skills and some may be simply simple-looking clever people!
  • Nowadays, banks and personal accounts are the most vulnerable to cyber crimes.

…..

To understand cyber crime thoroughly, let us refer to this example-

[This is just an imaginary story]

Ravi and Manan are two very close friends and richly talented in sports. Manan was a li’l more active in IT.
One day, Ravi and Manan both were taken by their PTI for holding a selection round for badminton, making them competitors of each other. Unfortunately, only one of them, Ravi, could qualify; and Manan was told to become a spectator of the tournament. Fuel was poured into the fire when their friends started praising Ravi in front of him. But he wasn’t among the ones who’d leave his ‘close friend’ in such a state of ascending him. Within the next week he extracted Ravi’s FB id and password, and posted some fake stories using that id; like ‘How I bribed my PTI to get selected in the Annual Badminton Competition’, ‘How I Cheat My Friends to gain attendance’, etc. He also abused to some of Ravi’s friends using his account. Meanwhile, Ravi was offline as he kept practicing badminton and realised what was going on only when his parents were informed all this. He was scolded a lot and also disqualified from the competition and gradually, he developed hatred for him among his friends. Manan was soon selected in place of Ravi and he acquired what he was on to.

Jealousy conquered innocence and led to what we call cyber crime

But could Ravi disprove the rumours and faults raised against him? Could he regain his dignity and friendship and his selection? Yes, but what did he do? The next part of this story is given below in a box, but first you must continue reading the theory part to be able to understand it.

There are many types of cyber crimes, based upon classification. The major are listed below:

, etc.

FRAUDS and FINANCIAL CRIMES

Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. In this context, the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by:

  • Altering in an unauthorized way. This requires little technical expertise and is common form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data, or by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes.
  • Altering, destroying, suppressing, or stealing output, usually to conceal unauthorized transactions. This is difficult to detect.
  • Altering or deleting stored data.

Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems, including bank fraudcardingidentity theft(the stealing of someone’s ID in order to exploit it and/or gain profit without using Rask identity; most probably, this takes place also to defame the owner of the identity and/or commit unwanted activities using that ID), extortion, and theft of classified information. A variety of internet scams, many based on phishing and social engineering, target consumers and businesses.

CYBER TERRORISM

Cyberterrorism in general can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources.
As such, a simple propaganda piece in the Internet that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism. There are also hacking activities directed towards individuals, families, organized by groups within networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting information relevant for ruining peoples’ lives, robberies, blackmailing, etc.
Such intrusions are part of an organized effort by cyberterrorists, foreign intelligence services, or other groups to map potential security holes in critical systems. A cyberterrorist is someone who intimidates or coerces a government or an organizationto advance his or her political or social objectives by launching a computer-based attack against computers, networks, or the information stored on them.

CYBER EXTORTION

Cyberextortion occurs when a website, e-mail server, or computer system is subjected to or threatened with repeated denial of service or other attacks by malicious hacker.
These hackers demand money in return for promising to stop the attacks and to offer “protection”. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, cyberextortionists are increasingly attacking corporate websites and networks, crippling their ability to operate and demanding payments to restore their service. More than 20 cases are reported each month to the FBI and many go unreported in order to keep the victim’s name out of the public domain. Perpetrators typically use a distributed denial-of-service attack(DoS or DDoS).

CYBER WARFARE

“Cyber Warfare is one of the fastest emerging and most destructive cyber crime in the modern world; it is the bigger form of every type of cyber crime and is the combination of several inappropriate computer-related-disorders caused to affect in an international level including at least one infected nation state.”- Reports
The U.S.Department of Defense(DoD) notes that the cyberspace has emerged as a national-level concern through several recent events of geo-strategic significance. Among those are included, the attack on Estonia’s infrastructure in 2007, allegedly by Russian hackers. “In August 2008, Russiaagain allegedly conducted cyberattacks, this time in a coordinated and synchronized kinetic and non-kinetic campaign against the country of Georgia. Fearing that such attacks may become the norm in future warfare among nation-states, the concept of cyberspace operations impacts and will be adapted by warfighting military commanders in the future.
Such information-related warfare could not be successfully put into action in India, by the cyber terrorists, that it being a nation-state transformed into a perplexing war among its neighbours. But, such practices were reported which could lead devastating cyber warfare, if weren’t taken out from the root.

COMPUTER-as-TOOL

When the individual is the main target of cybercrime, the computer can be considered as the tool rather than the target. These crimes generally involve less technical expertise. Human weaknesses are generally exploited. The damage dealt is largely psychological and intangible, making legal action against the variants more difficult. These are the crimes which have existed for centuries in the offline world.
Scams, theft, and the likes have existed even before the development in high-tech equipment. The same criminal has simply been given a tool which increases his potential pool of victims and makes him all the harder to trace and apprehend.
Crimes that use computer networks or devices to advance other ends include:

The unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes(spam) is unlawful in some jurisdictions. Phishing is mostly propagated via email.

Phishing emails may contain links to other websites that are affected by malware. Or, they may contain links to fake online banking or other websites used to steal private account information.

Harassment of some one in cyber sense is the use of vulgar, rubbish, poor, etc. words, media and threatenings with the person using a computer device(like chatting, linking, posting, mailing, etc.) to mentality and psychologically harass the person.
Cyber bullying is also similar to it, but it may contain the use of harassment elements only to tease someone relating to his/her weaknesses, etc.; without using any explicit content.

Drug trafficking

People do also use computer networks for the illegal transportation and information sharing and advertising of drugs.
For example, many drug rackets sell and buy drugs by trading online.
Also, they advertise these addictive harmful things on random internet places.

COMPUTER-as-TARGET

These crimes are committed by a selected group of criminals. Unlike crimes using the computer as a tool, these crimes require the technical knowledge of the perpetrators. As such, as technology evolves, so too does the nature of the crime. These crimes are relatively new, having been in existence for only as long as computers have— which explains how unprepared society and the world in general is towards combating these crimes.
There are numerous crimes of this nature committed daily on the internet.
Crimes that primarily target computer networks or devices include:

MOST POPULAR CYBER CRIMES IN HISTORY

  • One of the highest profiled banking computer crime occurred during a course of three years beginning in 1970. The chief teller at the Park Avenue branch of New York’s Union Dime Savings Bank embezzled over $1.5 million from hundreds of accounts.
  • A hacking group called MOD (Masters of Deception), allegedly stole passwords and technical data from Pacific Bell, Nynex, and other telephone companies as well asseveral big credit agencies and two major universities. The damage caused was extensive, one company, Southwestern Bell suffered losses of $370,000 alone.
  • In 1983, a nineteen-year-old UCLA studentused his PC to break into a Defense Department international communications system.
  • Between 1995 and 1998 theNewscorpsatellite pay to view encrypted SKY-TV service was hacked several times during an ongoing technological arms race between a pan-European hacking group and Newscorp. The original motivation of the hackers was to watch Star Trek re-runs in Germany; which was something which Newscorp did not have the copyright to allow.
  • On 26 March 1999, the Melissa worm infected a document on a victim’s computer, then automatically sent that document and a copy of the virus spread via e-mail to other people.
  • In February 2000, an individual going by the alias of Mafia Boy began a series denial-of-service attacks against high-profile websites, including Yahoo!, Amazon.com, Dell Inc., E*TRADE, eBay, and CNN. About fifty computers at Stanford University, and also computers at the University of California at Santa Barbara, were amongst the zombie computers sending pings in DDoS attacks.
    On 3 August 2000, Canadian federal prosecutors charged Mafia Boy with 54 counts of illegal access to computers, plus a total of ten counts of mischief to data for his attacks.
  • The Russian Business Network(RBN) was registered as an internet site in 2006. Initially, much of its activity was legitimate. But apparently the founders soon discovered that it was more profitable to host illegitimate activities and started hiring its services to criminals. The RBN has been described by Veri Signas “the baddest of the bad”. It offers web hosting services and internet access to all kinds of criminal and objectionable activities, with an individual activities earning up to $150 million in oneyear. It specialized in and in some cases monopolized personal identity theft for resale.
    It is the originator of MPackand analleged operator of the now defunct Storm botnet.
  • On 2 March 2010, Spanish investigators arrested 3 in infection of over 13 million computers around the world. The “botnet” of infected computers included PCs inside more than half of the Fortune 1000 companies and more than 40 major banks, according to investigators.
  • In August 2010 the international investigation Operation Delego, operating under the aegis of the Department of Homeland Security, shut down the international pedophilering Dreamboard. The website had approximately 600 members, and may have distributed up to 123 terabytes of child pornography (roughly equivalent to 16,000 DVDs). To date this is the single largest U.S. prosecution of an international child pornography ring; 52 arrests were made worldwide.
  • In January 2012 Zappos.com experienced a security breach after as many as 24 million customers’ credit card numbers, personal information, billing and shipping addresses had been compromised. In June 2012 LinkedIn and eHarmony were attacked, compromising 65 million password hashes. 30,000 passwords were cracked and 1.5 million EHarmony passwords were posted online.
  • December 2012, Wells Fargo website experienced a denial of service attack. Potentially compromising 70 million customers and 8.5 million active viewers. Other banks thought to be compromised: Bank of America, J. P. Morgan U.S. Bank, and PNC Financial Services.
  • April 23, 2013 saw the Associated Press’ Twitter account’s hacked- the hacker posted a hoax tweet about fictitious attacks in the White House that they claimed left President Obama injured.
    This hoax tweet resulted in a brief plunge of 130 points from the Dow Jones Industrial Average, removal of $136 billion from S&P 500 index, and the temporary suspension of AP’s Twitter account. The Dow Jones later restored itssession gains.
  • In October, 2013 Ingenico’s Indian subsidiary EBS(E-Billing Solutions) software was used/abused by cybercriminals to prevent the payment for the IT service of renewal of the domain name, or nodename, Hydro Dot Net. The web address Hydro Dot Net was then deleted by the IT services company rather than renewed, and immediately re-registered by BigRock(India) to be sold at auction to the highest bidder on the Snap Names website, in what some consider to be domain hijacking. Due to the fact that both PDR and BigRock are registrars and are subsidiaries of Directi, the standard “dispute” procedures for contested domains were circumvented.
    The registrant had successfully completed the payment for renewal via EBS(Ingenico), and additionally paid via wire-transfer bank-to-bank, from Japan Post Savings to Axis Bank at Jaipur Raj, but the cybercriminals had already committed themselves to completing the various legal violations(including a clause of the Companies Act of India concerning CEO’s and IT), held the wrongfully lost web address at Directi’s BigRock, having maintained the registrar of record(PublicDomainRegistry.com, also of Directi) until after the auction.
    The wrongfully taken web-address was then laundered viaGoDaddyin the US.
    In this case, although both ICANN and IANA had been alerted to the cybercrime, the “Emergency Action Channel” was not effective, and the cybercrime case remains unsolved. In May 2009, United States law enforcement served a criminal indictment followed by the world’s first arrest for domain hijacking as cybercrime. Although most of the procedures of domain registration and transfer are common, the case of Hydro Dot Net was a case in which the domain-hosting back end was exploited at the point of payment for its renewal, thereby causing its wrongful loss.
  • In May 2017, 74 countries logged aransomwar ecybercrime, called “WannaCry”.

PREVENTIONS OF CYBER CRIMES/CYBER SECURITY

DIFFUSING OF CYBER CRIME

The broad diffusion of cybercriminal activities is an issue in computer crimes detection and prosecution.

INVESTIGATION

A computer can be a source of evidence(see digital forensics). Even where a computer is not directly used for criminal purposes, it may contain records of value to criminal investigators in the form of alogfile. In most countries Internet Service Providers are required, by law, to keep their logfiles for a predetermined amount of time. For example, a European wide Data Retention Directive(applicable to all EU member states) states that all E-mail traffic should be retained for a minimum of 12 months.

LEGISLATION

Due to easily exploitable laws, cybercriminals use developing countries in order to evade detection and prosecution from law enforcement. In developing countries, such as the Philippines, laws against cybercrime are weak or sometimes nonexistent. These weak laws allow cybercriminals to strike from international borders and remain undetected. Even whenidentified, these criminals avoid being punished or extradited to a country, such asthe United States, that has developed laws that allow for prosecution. While this proves difficult in some cases, agencies, such as the FBI, have used deception and subterfuge to catch criminals. For example, two Russian hackers had been evading the FBI for some time. The FBI set up a fake computing company based in Seattle, Washington. They proceeded to lure the two Russian men into the United States by offering them work with this company. Upon completion of the interview, the suspects were arrested outside of the building. Clever tricks like this are sometimes a necessary part of catching cybercriminals when weak legislation makes it impossible otherwise.
President Barack Obama released in an executive order in April 2015 to combat cybercrime. The executive order allows the United States to freeze assets of convicted cybercriminals and block their economic activity within the United States. This is some of the first solid legislation that combats cybercrime in this way.
The European Union adopted directive 2013/40/EU. All offences of the directive, and other definitions and procedural institutions are also in the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime.

PENALTIES

Penalties for computer related crimes in New York State can range from a fine and ashort period of jail time for a Class A misdemeanor such as unauthorized use of a computer up to computer tampering in the first degree which is a Class C felony and can carry 3 to 15 years in prison. However, some hackers have been hired asinformation security experts by private companies due to their inside knowledge ofcomputer crime, a phenomenon which theoretically could create perverse incentives. A possible counter to this is for courts to ban convicted hackers from usingthe Internet or computers, even after they have been released from prison – though as computers and the Internet become more and more central to everyday life, this type of punishment may be viewed as moreand more harsh and draconian. However, nuanced approaches have been developed that manage cyberoffender behavior without resorting to total computer and/or Internet bans. These approaches involve restricting individuals to specific devices which are subject to computer monitoring and/or computer searches by probation and/or parole officers.

AWARENESS

As always, awareness plays the key role in reducing every type of crime.
“I am glad to say that my site, World of Blogger SHANTANU is a part of the Anti-Crime Awareness Act(led by us).”
One must utilise Internet for only helpful purposes and learn, explore and spread awareness about various topics.

Now let’s come back upon our story.
…But Ravi didn’t lose hope. He was a lucky boy to be the son of very smart and caring parents. They asked him and discussed about the matter. His father being an anti-hacking officer helped him to find out about his ID logins and discovered the reality.
Soon the whole family met the Principal and told about the suspect. After a li’l investigation, Manan was discovered the real culprit and all the rumours against Ravi were teleported on Manan.
The School Staff regretted and Ravi’s friends joined him back!
He could play the Badminton Tournament as well and he win it, whereas the jealous Manan had to suffer a lot from everywhere for over half year.

Manan proved to be an identity thieve and Ravi’s father’s skills helped to kick out the emerging theft!!

Also watch

Presentation of CYBER CRIME on my YouTube channel.



“I hope you’d like the article. Please understand what I and millions of victims to cyber crimes suggest.” You can mail me your suggestions, ideas and requests for new posts to my email through the links given below:

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s